By Todd J. Smith and Danny Richter
Why is this legislation necessary?
This legislation will put us on the path of a sustainable climate by reducing our greenhouse gas emissions and transitioning us to a clean energy economy. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution we have increased the level of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2), in our atmosphere. Scientists warn that this is having a drastic effect on our climate. Changes that would normally take thousands of years are happening in decades. Current concentrations of heat-trapping CO2 are higher than at any time in the entire history of the human species on Earth. In effect, we have covered the Earth with a large blanket of greenhouse gases and the Earth is warming up. The oceans are absorbing this increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, making them more acidic. Eventually, this acidity will affect the oceans’ ability to support life.
What is a carbon fee?
It is a fee based on the amount of carbon in a fossil fuel. Fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal contain carbon. When burned they release the potent green house gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), into the atmosphere. The fee is based on the tons of carbon dioxie the fuel would generate, and it would be collected at the earliest point of entry into the economy — well, mine or port. The fee would start out low — $15 per ton — and gradually increase $10 each year.
What is the difference between a “tax” and a “fee”?
A tax has the primary purpose of raising revenue. By contrast, a fee recovers the cost of providing a service from a beneficiary. Since the CCL advocates for revenue-neutrality and a policy that doesn’t grow the government, we are advocating for a fee, not a tax. However, for purposes of discussion you will find carbon tax and carbon fee used interchangeably, and referring to the same type of legislation. This is fine, and don’t let it get in the way of the discussion. The tax or fee do the same thing, which is to include the damage that carbon is doing to our climate, oceans, and health in the price.
How much will the carbon tax affect energy prices?
The best example would be gasoline. A $1 per ton increase in the carbon fee would equal about 1 penny on the price of gas. So if the carbon tax started at $15/ton, gasoline would go up by about 15 cents per gallon the first year and 10 cents each year afterward.
What is the dividend?
The dividend is defined as the quantity of revenue to rebated to American households. In this case, 100 percent of the total carbon fees collected are divided up and given back to all households equally. This dividend helps citizens pay the increased costs associated with the carbon fee while our nation transitions to a clean energy economy. Because not everyone uses the same amount of carbon, the majority of American households (about 66 percent) are estimated to earn back as much or more than they pay in increased costs .
 See our laser talk “Carbon Fee and Dividend” for greater details and references.
How does Carbon Fee and Dividend legislation work?
Carbon Fee and Dividend legislation puts a fee on the amount of carbon dioxide in fossil fuels. This fee is assessed at the source of the fuel: at the mine, well, or port of entry. The fee starts out low and increases annually in a predictable manner until we reach a safe level of emissions. The fee is collected exclusively at the first point of sale, and 100 percent of the revenues are reimbursed directly to all American households, shielding them from the financial impact of the transition to a clean energy economy. Because the fee (and the price of fossil fuel) goes up predictably over time, it sends a clear price signal to begin using fossil fuels more efficiently or replace them with low emissions energy. That price signal motivates investment to move into low emissions technologies, as the true cost of fossil fuels is brought back onto the balance sheets of those who sell them. The rising cost of fossil fuels increases the demand for low emissions products, making them even less expensive as they reach mass production. This clear and easy-to-understand price signal (increasing fossil fuel costs and decreasing green technology costs) drive the transition to a green economy. This transition will reduce greenhouse gas emissions, stabilizing our climate and the health of our oceans.
What are the consequences if we do nothing?
We are already experiencing the warning signs of climate change — more extreme weather, longer droughts, worse flooding, warmer average ocean and surface temperatures, disappearing glaciers, melting ice caps and snow fields, increased land desertification, rising ocean levels, ocean acidification, and the mass extinction of animal species because they cannot move fast enough or adapt soon enough to the changes in their habitat. We are already at climate reinforcing points (when warming speeds up). A good example is the North Pole’s ice cap which is over water. This ice cap has traditionally reflected 90% of the solar radiation, which falls on it, back into space keeping the ocean underneath cold. This icecap is disappearing in the summers allowing the open ocean to absorb most of the heat. This is speeding up the warming of the water and melting of the icecap. Our top climate scientists warn us that we need to bring CO2 levels in our atmosphere back down to 350 parts per million (ppm) or lower. We are currently at 400 ppm and rising by 2-3 ppm annually. This is what is forcing our climate to warm, and because oceans absorb a large percent of this CO2, our oceans are becoming more acidic.
How is this legislation fair to businesses, utilities, manufacturers, services, farms?
By giving all of the carbon tax back to households — the end users — consumers will be able to pay the higher prices of goods and services caused by the higher price of fossil fuels. This allows businesses to pass along the increased cost and keep market share. Each year the carbon tax goes up, the dividend goes up as well. Everyone is on a level playing field for the first few years. But if businesses do not become more energy efficient and start converting to low-emissions energy, they will become less competitive and lose market share. These market forces will drive innovations in low-emissions technology, creating new business opportunities to develop, produce, install and service these products. This will create millions of new jobs here in America. American companies will be able to sell these technologies globally and American companies will become more efficient with the energy they use, making them more competitive worldwide.
Why will citizens change to low-emissions technologies if they are given a dividend to pay for the increasing price of fossil fuels?
With Carbon Fee and Dividend legislation, it is clear to citizens that prices for fossil fuels will go up every year. Part of their motivation is to save as much of their dividend check as possible rather than spending it on more expensive fossil fuels. They can do this by changing over to energy efficient lighting and appliances, upgrading their insulation or windows, replacing that old oil furnace with a geothermal heat pump, etc. When it comes time to get another vehicle, they would consider one that gets better gas mileage or an all-electric vehicle. They can then buy clean electricity (where available) through their utility to charge their car, getting them off fossil fuels altogether. The motivation is to reduce cost in the years to come. The same is true for investors and for fossil fuel companies: as the fee increases, and the cost of doing business rises with it, the rising dividend will ensure that the true cost of doing business will be paid by those in that business.
How will our manufacturers be protected?
The CCL legislative proposal calls for placing a border adjustment levy on all imports from countries that do not price carbon similarly, leveling the playing field for our companies and complying with the World Trade Organization (WTO) to foster competition . Because the US consumer economy is so much more valuable than any other in the world, foreign countries that export heavily to the US will likely choose to institute a similar carbon price, to avoid sending huge amounts of capitol to the US. Either way, US manufacturers lose no ground economically.
 See our laser talk “Border Tax Adjustment” for greater details and references.
How will our exporters be protected?
The legislative proposal calls for rebating the border adjustment fee to American companies exporting to countries without similar carbon pricing, leveling the playing field for our companies and complying with the World Trade Organization (WTO).
Why will the adoption of Carbon Fee and Dividend legislation put America in the leadership position on climate change?
Because of the carbon fee border adjustments, exporting countries will either adopt similar carbon pricing, or pay at our border. All countries that adopt similar taxes on carbon are on the same level playing field and can make border adjustments with countries that do not adopt such taxes. This encourages all countries to place similar taxes on carbon. As more nations adopt carbon taxes, worldwide demand brings the best green technologies to mass market faster, driving down costs and making the transition to a green economy less expensive for everyone.
What is green technology?
Green technology is any technology that reduces waste, increases energy efficiency, or produces low- or no-carbon energy. By reducing waste you actually save energy. Recycling aluminum cans for example, uses only about 5 percent of the energy needed to make aluminum from ore. Energy efficient technologies include Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Compact Florescent lighting, energy star appliances, efficient building design, high efficiency windows, hybrid and all electric cars, etc. Green technology includes those technologies that help us use fossil fuels more efficiently. Green energy (also know as clean energy) is energy produced by sources — solar, wind, wave, geothermal, – that do not contribute to total greenhouse gas emissions.
How many new jobs will be created if we adopt Carbon Fee and Dividend Legislation?
The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that the US had 3,129,112 green jobs in 2010. The Department of Energy predicts using conservative estimates that by 2030 there will be over half a million wind jobs alone . Carbon Fee and Dividend legislation is very transparent, easy to understand and fair to all parties making it more likely to achieve the intended goals of lowering total CO2 levels while transitioning to a green economy. The transition to a green economy creates the jobs researching, manufacturing, installing, and servicing green technologies that reduce our dependence on fossil fuels.
 See our laser talk “Jobs – Fossil Fuels vs. Renewables” for greater details and references.
What benefits will America receive by addressing climate change through Carbon Fee and Dividend legislation?
- We will stabilize our climate and oceans and slow down the mass extinction of species.
- It will put America in a position of leadership on climate legislation and in green technology. Governments will be forced to adopt the same carbon price levels as we do or pay at our ports for the privilege of polluting.
- It will decrease our dependence on foreign oil, substituting low-carbon energy made in the U.S. The U.S. spends billions annually on imported oil. When we substitute that for green energy made in America, it creates jobs.
- Decreasing our dependence on foreign oil increases our national security. Much of our military budget is spent protecting the free flow of oil and propping up the bad governments that control it.
- The transition to clean energy will clean our air of smog, ozone, fine particulate matter and other pollutants caused by burning fossil fuel. It will clean our lakes, rivers, and oceans from the mercury poisoning caused by burning coal, the leachates from coal mine tailings, and salt brines from drilling.
- We will gain a sense of national pride by tackling and achieving a tough goal together, leading the world not in the industrial revolution or the information age but in the Green Technology Revolution. Most of the green technologies we know of today were developed and tested in American laboratories only to be brought to market in other countries because those governments had national energy policies encouraging the adoption of green energy. We have already lost millions of jobs by holding on to the centuries-old technology of fossil fuels while other countries are transitioning to clean-energy economies. It is time we regained the lead.
Why is Carbon Fee and Dividend better than Cap and Trade?
Cap and Trade was used by some early signers of the Kyoto Protocol, the first international treaty to address climate change. Though most early adopters tried hard to make it work, Cap and Trade was not easy to understand, energy prices swung wildly, consumers paid the whole cost of the experiment, and it was not very effective in reducing total CO2 emissions. Much of the reason for this was because of offset credits. Power providers could buy offset credits that allowed them to burn more fossil fuels, but the offset credits did not actually reduce total CO2 emissions. Carbon traders and offset investors made lots of money. Utilities and manufacturers had increased costs that were passed on to the consumer. No real reduction in CO2 was achieved and the consumer was stuck with the bill. Carbon Fee and Dividend, on the other hand, is easy for everyone to understand, it gives the end consumer 100 percent of the proceeds of the carbon fee to help pay for the transition to clean energy, there are no offset credits or carbon credits to manipulate and no one technology is singled out to win or lose. Only with inaction over several years do you become disadvantaged. With action you become more efficient and competitive. The free market picks the winning and losing technologies. Low-emissions energy and efficiency measures become cost competitive as prices rise for fossil fuels. As we transition to green technologies and green energies, CO2 emissions are reduced. Investments in green energy spur the development of innovative technologies that we export to other countries. America regains leadership in the green revolution.
Why target a 90% reduction in 1990 emissions by 2050?
This target was set to keep warming below 2 degrees centigrade. The 2007 IPCC report (AR4*) contains a table for the emissions reductions relative to 1990 emissions necessary to stabilize the climate at different thresholds. The actual range in the report is 80-95% reduction below 1990 levels, so our target reflects the mean of those numbers plus a little cushion to be conservative and get a round number.
*The working group 3 report for the the most recent IPCC report (AR5) has not been released yet.
 Working Group 3, chapter 13. Ref this link for pdf download, page 776.
Why the CCL rate of increase in the carbon fee?
Basically, we’re aiming to achieve the IPCC goal of 80-95% emissions reductions below 1990 levels by 2050 . If our policy is enacted in 2015, our rate of increase will result in a 13% drop in emissions by 2020, and a 20% drop in emissions within 10 years relative to 1990 emissions [5, 6]. While the IPCC report states that Annex I countries (which includes the US) need to achieve 25%-40% emissions reductions relative to 1990 by 2020, the CCL bill language allows for adjustments in the rate of increase to meet science-based emissions targets.
 Charles Komanoff. “6-sector National Carbon Tax Model.” The Carbon Tax Center. May 30, 2013. URL for download: http://www.komanoff.net/fossil/CTC_Carbon_Tax_Model.xls
 The Carbon Tax Center Spreadsheet only reports CO2 emissions reductions relative to 2005. To report them relative to 1990 emissions, we did a simple correction using the EPA’s “Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2011” (released April 12, 2013) document, which reports US emissions in both 1990 and 2005 in the executive summary.
A carbon tax may be assessed upstream (at the coal mine, oil well, or fracking site), mid-stream (at the power plants or oil refinery), or down-stream (at the gas pump or at the meter). The CCL has chosen an upstream point to collect the tax because it is simpler to administer and opens the possibility of keeping the carbon price for exports . The export clause of the US Constitution (Art. I, Sec. 9) forbids domestic taxes from being included in exported products. However, there is case law that indicates a “severance fee” does not have to be refunded at the border. A carbon tax can only be considered a severance fee when it is assessed upstream. As climate change is a global problem, making the carbon fee stick to coal, in particular, which is exported abroad, is of interest in solving the global climate crisis. Assessing the fee upstream, while returning 100% of the revenues to households, allows the solution to span the entire marketplace, with no new bureaucracy.
 Astoria, Ross. “The Export Clause and the Constitutionality of a National Cap-and-Trade CO2 Mitigation Policy”. Forthcoming in Spring issue of the Georgetown International Environmental Law Review.
Why revenue neutral?
Academic papers studying a carbon tax indicate that a carbon tax with 100% revenue recycling can boost the economy, even before considering the economic benefits from improved health and less severe climate impacts . Thus, CCL has chosen to advocate for a policy that will restore the climate
and boost the economy.
 See the laser talk “Economic Effect of a Carbon Tax” for more complete discussion and references.
Why a dividend?
Academic studies that consider the economic effect of a revenue-neutral carbon tax generally consider a dividend less beneficial (but still very beneficial) than a tax-swap . A tax-swap means using the revenue to reduce any combination of payroll, income, or corporate taxes. However, these studies also say that though these tax-swap policies, especially corporate tax-swaps, result in a marginally larger economy, extra measures would have to be implemented to help the poor, because none of these tax-swaps will help the unemployed; including millions of retirees.
Because CCL values simplicity and transparency, because economists say the poor must be taken care of, because the difference in economic efficiency is marginal, and because a dividend will still boost the economy when health and climate benefits are accounted for, the CCL advocates for the only revenue return mechanism that reaches every American. Reaching everyone is indispensable for the success of any carbon price because when gas is $1.00 per gallon more expensive (year 10 in CCLs policy) , the poor will not be able to afford it with any of the tax-swap mechanisms of return, and the bill would be repealed. Only a dividend can simply, transparently, and fairly help everyone afford the price increases, ensuring support of the policy until we have restored the climate, and giving the Main Street economy time to adjust.
Why a border adjustment?
Though many other countries have carbon prices in some form , none of these are a match for the physics of the climate, and none employ a border adjustment . Without a border adjustment, American exporters would find themselves at a considerable disadvantage selling their goods in countries without a comparable carbon price. Likewise, goods produced domestically would be at a disadvantage compared to goods imported from countries without a comparable carbon price. It is therefore necessary to refund the carbon tax on goods exported and impose a carbon tax on carbon intensive goods imported. While there are widespread concerns about how such a border adjustment could be compatible with world trade regulations (WTO) law, these concerns are ill-founded. WTO experts have written documents explaining how this could be achieved, and it is clear that the CCL proposal is consistent with the requirements these experts outline .
 “Climate and Carbon: Aligning Prices and Policies”. October 2013. OECD Environment Policy Paper No. 1. Available here.
Who would a administer the border adjustment?
By the Treasury Department, which includes the I.R.S.
Why increase by a dollar amount?
There are three possibilities for increasing the carbon fee: increasing by a dollar amount, increasing by a percentage, or not increasing at all. CCL has chosen an annual dollar amount increase because of simplicity, effectiveness, and the economy.
Simplicity: it is easy to understand that the carbon price will be $15 in the first year, $25 in the second, and $35 in the third, etc. By contrast, you need a calculator to figure out that under S. 332, which uses a percentage increase, the carbon price is $20 in the first year, $21.12 in the second year,
and $22.30 in the third year .
Effectiveness: a dollar increase achieves substantial health and climate co-benefits at an earlier date. For example, there are $120 billion in mostly health-related costs incurred each year by the burning of fossil fuels . Fewer emissions today means more lives saved today.
Economy: A carbon fee that doesn’t change in price and still enables us to meet emissions reductions targets needed for a stable climate would have an unwelcome effect on the economy. By contrast, a % increase would not give American businesses the price signal they need to be competitive with European and Chinese companies rapidly developing and deploying fossil-free technologies. A dollar increase strikes a balance between these two extremes.